OSPF Questions 3
Here you will find answers to OSPF Questions – Part 3
Refer to the exhibit. You are the network administrator responsible for the NProuter, the 10.1.1.1 router, and the 10.1.1.2 router. What can you determine about the OSPF operations from the debug output?
NProuter#debug ip ospf events
OSPF events debugging is on
A. The NProuter has two OSPF neighbors in the “Full” adjacency state.
B. The NProuter serial0/0 interface has the OSPF dead timer set to 10 seconds.
C. The NProuter serial0/0 interface has been configured with an OSPF network type of “point-to-point”.
D. The 10.1.1.1 and 10.1.1.2 routers are not using the default OSPF dead and hello timers setting.
E. The “Mismatched” error is caused by the expiration of the OSPF timers.
First we should understand clearly about the line
Dead R 120 C 10, Hello R 30 C 30
The “R” here means “Received” and “C” means “Configured”. In other words, “Dead R” is the Dead Timer Received from the neighbor and the “Dead C” is the Dead Timer of the local router.
Therefore in this case “Dead R 120 C 10″ means the Death Timer of the neighbor is 120 seconds while the local Dead Timer is 10 seconds, which causes a mismatch. Also we can learn that the local OSPF dead timer is set to 10 seconds -> B is correct.
For your information, by default, OSPF uses a 10-second hello timer and 40-second hold timer on broadcast and point-to-point links, and a 30-second hello timer and 120-second hold timer for all other network types. So we can’t confirm answer D is correct or not.
You have just completed an OSPF implementation. While executing your verification plan, you determine that R1 is not able to establish full OSPF adjacency with R2. The show ip ospf neighbor command output on R1 shows that R2 is stuck in the INIT state.
What could be the cause of this problem?
A. DR and BDR election errors between R1 and R2.
B. The R2 router has not received the OSPF hello packets from the R1 router.
C. Mismatched interface maximum transmission unit (MTU) configuration between the R1 and R2.
D. Mismatched OSPF hello interval configuration between the R1 and R2.
E. Corrupted LSAs exchanges between the R1 and R2.
When a router receives an OSPF Hello from a neighbor, it sends the Hello packet by including that neighbor’s router ID in the Hello packet. If the neighbor does not receive this packet (means that it doesn’t see itself in this packet), it will be stuck in INIT state. INIT state can be understood as a one-way Hello. An example of a router stuck in INIT state is shown below:
Refer to the exhibit. You have completed an OSPF implementation, and you are verifying OSPF operation. You notice that router A and router B are stuck in the two-way state. From the show ip ospf interface command output, what is the cause of this issue?
A. All OSPF implementations must have at least one interface in area 0.
B. You are attempting to run in the broadcast mode over an NBMA interface.
C. Both routers are configured to function as a BDR; therefore, there is no DR router.
D. Someone has changed the OSPF router ID; therefore you must clear the OSPF process.
E. The OSPF priority is set to 0 on both routers; therefore neither can become the DR.
When OSPF adjacency is formed, a router goes through several state changes before it becomes fully adjacent with its neighbor. The states are Down, Attempt, Init, 2-Way, Exstart, Exchange, Loading, and Full.
An OSPF neighbor reaches the 2-way state when bidirectional communication is established (each router has seen the other’s hello packet). This is the beginning of an OSPF adjacency. On broadcast media and non-broadcast multiaccess networks, the DR and BDR are elected in this state. But the priority on both routers are 0 so no DR and BDR are elected -> These routers stay in the 2-way state.
(Reference and a good resource of OSPF Neighbor states: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f0e.shtml)
You have completed an OSPF implementation, and you are verifying OSPF operation. During this verification, you notice that the OSPF route of 172.16.10.0 is repeatedly appearing and disappearing from the routing table. Further investigation finds that the OSPF CPU utilization is very high and the routers are constantly performing SPF calculations. You determine that 172.16.20.2 is the source of the 172.16.10.0 route. Using the show ip ospf database router 172.16.20.1 command, you notice that when this show command is performed repeatedly, the contents of the LSA change every few seconds.
What could be the cause of this problem?
A. OSPF authentication errors between some of the routers.
B. Two routers have the same OSPF router ID.
C. Issues with mistuned OSPF timers.
D. OSPF LSA pacing issues between some of the routers.
E. OSPF neighbor adjacency problems between some of the routers.
The maximum number of routers per OSPF area typically depends on which three factors? (Choose three)
A. the kind of OSPF areas being implemented
B. the number of external LSAs in the network
C. the number of DRs and BDRs in the areas
D. the number of virtual links in the areas
E. how well the areas can be summarized
F. the use of LSA filters
Answer: A B E
When verifying OSPF virtual link problems, which is an important item to check on the two transit OSPF routers?
A. OSPF process ID
B. OSPF router ID
C. OSPF network type
D. OSPF memory usage
E. OSPF CPU utilization
F. OSPF stub area configurations
The OSPF router IDs of the two transit OSPF routers are used to form the virtual link (with the area area-id virtual-link neighbor-router-id command) so it is an important item to check -> B is correct.
The administrator wants to verify the current state of the OSPF database loading process.
Which show command should the administrator use?
A. show ip ospf [process-id] interface
B. show ip ospf neighbor
C. show ip ospf [process-id]
D. show ip ospf [process-id area-id] database
The “show ip ospf neighbor” command can be used to view the current state of the OSPF database loading process. In the output below we can see router 126.96.36.199 is in 2way state, router 188.8.131.52 is elected as the BDR & router 184.108.40.206 is the BR.
Which two statements about route redistribution when implementing OSPF are true? (Choose two)
A. Routes learned using any IP routing protocol can only be redistributed into non IP routing protocols.
B. OSPF can import routes learned using EIGRP, RIP, and IS-IS.
C. OSPF routes cannot be exported into EIGRP, RIP, and IS-IS.
D. At the interdomain level, OSPF cannot import routes learned using BGP.
E. OSPF routes can be exported into BGP.
Answer: B E
An administrator types in the command router ospf 1 and receives the error message: “OSPF process 1 cannot start.” (Output is omitted.)
What should be done to correctly set up OSPF?
A. Ensure that an interface has been configured with an IP address.
B. Ensure that an interface has been configured with an IP address and is up.
C. Ensure that IP classless is enabled.
D. Ensure that the interfaces can ping their directly connected neighbors.
OSPF can be only started when there is at least one interface up and configured with an IP address on the router.
Which three are advantages to creating multiple areas in OSPF? (Choose three)
A. less frequent SPF calculations
B. fewer hello packets
C. smaller routing tables
D. reduced LSU overhead
E. fewer adjacencies needed
Answer: A C D
OSPF routers within an area only need to know about other routers within their own area, not outside their area, and all OSPF routers within a given area share the same link state database. This keeps the routing tables small enough to prevent processing bottlenecks from occurring -> C is correct.
Also SPF only needs to calculate paths to routers within that area -> A is correct.
If a router receives an LSA with old information then it will send a LSU to the sender to update the sender with the newer information. The Link State Update (LSU) holds the LSAs. Instead of sending multiple LSUs the ABR / ASBR summarizes a route and sends only one LSU-> D is correct.
Note: The LSA has a 30 minute timer that causes the router to send an LSU to everyone on the network once it ages out.