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GRE Tunnel Questions

January 28th, 2021 in ENCOR 350-401 Go to comments

Question 1

Explanation

The IP protocol was designed for use on a wide variety of transmission links. Although the maximum length of an IP datagram is 65535, most transmission links enforce a smaller maximum packet length limit, called an MTU. The value of the MTU depends on the type of the transmission link. The design of IP accommodates MTU differences since it allows routers to fragment IP datagrams as necessary. The receiving station is responsible for the reassembly of the fragments back into the original full size IP datagram.

Fragmentation and Path Maximum Transmission Unit Discovery (PMTUD) is a standardized technique to determine the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size on the network path between two hosts, usually with the goal of avoiding IP fragmentation. PMTUD was originally intended for routers in IPv4. However, all modern operating systems use it on endpoints.

The TCP Maximum Segment Size (TCP MSS) defines the maximum amount of data that a host is willing to accept in a single TCP/IP datagram. This TCP/IP datagram might be fragmented at the IP layer. The MSS value is sent as a TCP header option only in TCP SYN segments. Each side of a TCP connection reports its MSS value to the other side. Contrary to popular belief, the MSS value is not negotiated between hosts. The sending host is required to limit the size of data in a single TCP segment to a value less than or equal to the MSS reported by the receiving host.

TCP MSS takes care of fragmentation at the two endpoints of a TCP connection, but it does not handle the case where there is a smaller MTU link in the middle between these two endpoints. PMTUD was developed in order to avoid fragmentation in the path between the endpoints. It is used to dynamically determine the lowest MTU along the path from a packet’s source to its destination.

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/generic-routing-encapsulation-gre/25885-pmtud-ipfrag.html (there is some examples of how TCP MSS avoids IP Fragmentation in this link but it is too long so if you want to read please visit this link)

Note: IP fragmentation involves breaking a datagram into a number of pieces that can be reassembled later.

If the DF bit is set to clear, routers can fragment packets regardless of the original DF bit setting -> Answer D is not correct.

Question 2

Explanation

The TCP Maximum Segment Size (TCP MSS) defines the maximum amount of data that a host is willing to accept in a single TCP/IP datagram. This TCP/IP datagram might be fragmented at the IP layer. The MSS value is sent as a TCP header option only in TCP SYN segments. Each side of a TCP connection reports its MSS value to the other side. Contrary to popular belief, the MSS value is not negotiated between hosts. The sending host is required to limit the size of data in a single TCP segment to a value less than or equal to the MSS reported by the receiving host.

TCP MSS takes care of fragmentation at the two endpoints of a TCP connection, but it does not handle the case where there is a smaller MTU link in the middle between these two endpoints. PMTUD was developed in order to avoid fragmentation in the path between the endpoints. It is used to dynamically determine the lowest MTU along the path from a packet’s source to its destination.

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/generic-routing-encapsulation-gre/25885-pmtud-ipfrag.html (there is some examples of how TCP MSS avoids IP Fragmentation in this link but it is too long so if you want to read please visit this link)

Note: IP fragmentation involves breaking a datagram into a number of pieces that can be reassembled later.

Question 3

Explanation

If the DF bit is set to clear (not set), routers can fragment packets regardless of the original DF bit setting.

Whenever we create tunnel interfaces, the GRE IP MTU is automatically configured 24 bytes less than the outbound physical interface MTU. Ethernet interfaces have an MTU value of 1500 bytes so tunnel interfaces by default will have 1476 bytes MTU, which is 24 bytes less the physical interface. The process of sending a 1500-byte IPv4 packet (with DF bit set to clear) is shown below:

1. The sender sends a 1500-byte packet (20 byte IPv4 header + 1480 bytes of TCP payload).
2. Since the MTU of the GRE tunnel is 1476, the 1500-byte packet is broken into two IPv4 fragments of 1476 and 44 bytes, each in anticipation of the additional 24 byes of GRE header.
3. The 24 bytes of GRE header is added to each IPv4 fragment. Now the fragments are 1500 (1476 + 24) and 68 (44 + 24) bytes each.
4. The GRE + IPv4 packets that contain the two IPv4 fragments are forwarded to the GRE tunnel peer router.
5. The GRE tunnel peer router removes the GRE headers from the two packets.
6. This router forwards the two packets to the destination host.
7. The destination host reassembles the IPv4 fragments back into the original IPv4 datagram.

Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/generic-routing-encapsulation-gre/25885-pmtud-ipfrag.html (Scenario 5)

Question 4

Question 5

Explanation

The %TUN-5-RECURDOWN: Tunnel0 temporarily disabled due to recursive routing error message means that the generic routing encapsulation (GRE) tunnel router has discovered a recursive routing problem. This condition is usually due to one of these causes:
+ A misconfiguration that causes the router to try to route to the tunnel destination address using the tunnel interface itself (recursive routing)
+ A temporary instability caused by route flapping elsewhere in the network

Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/enhanced-interior-gateway-routing-protocol-eigrp/22327-gre-flap.html

Question 6

Explanation

From the “Tunnel protocol/transport GRE/IP” line, we can deduce this tunnel is using the default IPv4 Layer-3 tunnel mode. We can return to this default mode with the “tunnel mode gre ip” command.

Question 7

Explanation

In order to make a Point-to-Point GRE Tunnel interface in up/up state, two requirements must be met:
+ A valid tunnel source (which is in up/up state and has an IP address configured on it) and tunnel destination must be configured
+ A valid tunnel destination is one which is routable. However, it does not have to be reachable.

-> In this question we are missing an up/up source so we can choose Loopback 0 interface.

Question 8

Explanation

In the above output, the IP address of “209.165.202.130” is the tunnel source IP while the IP 10.111.1.1 is the tunnel IP address.

An example of configuring GRE tunnel is shown below:

R1 (GRE config only)
interface s0/0/0
ip address 63.1.27.2 255.255.255.0
interface tunnel0
ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
tunnel mode gre ip //this command can be ignored
tunnel source s0/0
tunnel destination 85.5.24.10
R2 (GRE config only)
interface s0/0/0
ip address 85.5.24.10 255.255.255.0
interface tunnel1
ip address 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
tunnel source 85.5.24.10
tunnel destination 63.1.27.2

Question 9

Question 10

Explanation

6to4 tunnel is a technique which relies on reserved address space 2002::/16 (you must remember this range). These tunnels determine the appropriate destination address by combining the IPv6 prefix with the globally unique destination 6to4 border router’s IPv4 address, beginning with the 2002::/16 prefix, in this format:

2002:border-router-IPv4-address::/48

For example, if the border-router-IPv4-address is 64.101.64.1, the tunnel interface will have an IPv6 prefix of 2002:4065:4001:1::/64, where 4065:4001 is the hexadecimal equivalent of 64.101.64.1. This technique allows IPv6 sites to communicate with each other over the IPv4 network without explicit tunnel setup but we have to implement it on all routers on the path.

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