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Virtualization Questions

March 16th, 2020 in ENCOR 350-401 Go to comments

Question 1

Explanation

There is nothing special with the configuration of Gi0/0 on R1. Only Gi0/0 interface on R2 is assigned to VRF VPN_A. The default VRF here is similar to the global routing table concept in Cisco IOS

Question 2

Explanation

Answer C and answer D are not correct as only route distinguisher (RD) identifies the customer routing table and “allows customers to be assigned overlapping addresses”.

Answer A is not correct as “When BGP is configured, route targets are transmitted as BGP extended communities”

Question 3

Explanation

In VRF-Lite, Route distinguisher (RD) identifies the customer routing table and allows customers to be assigned overlapping addresses. Therefore it can support multiple customers with overlapping addresses -> Answer E is correct.

VRFs are commonly used for MPLS deployments, when we use VRFs without MPLS then we call it VRF lite -> Answer C is not correct.

VRF-Lite supports most populr routing protocols: BGP, OSPF, EIGRP, RIP, and static routing -> Answer B is correct.

Question 4

Explanation

There are two types of hypervisors: type 1 and type 2 hypervisor.

In type 1 hypervisor (or native hypervisor), the hypervisor is installed directly on the physical server. Then instances of an operating system (OS) are installed on the hypervisor. Type 1 hypervisor has direct access to the hardware resources. Therefore they are more efficient than hosted architectures. Some examples of type 1 hypervisor are VMware vSphere/ESXi, Oracle VM Server, KVM and Microsoft Hyper-V.

In contrast to type 1 hypervisor, a type 2 hypervisor (or hosted hypervisor) runs on top of an operating system and not the physical hardware directly. A big advantage of Type 2 hypervisors is that management console software is not required. Examples of type 2 hypervisor are VMware Workstation (which can run on Windows, Mac and Linux) or Microsoft Virtual PC (only runs on Windows).

Type1_Type2_Hypervisors.jpg

Question 5

Explanation

Server virtualization and the use of virtual machines is profoundly changing data center dynamics. Most organizations are struggling with the cost and complexity of hosting multiple physical servers in their data centers. The expansion of the data center, a result of both scale-out server architectures and traditional “one application, one server” sprawl, has created problems in housing, powering, and cooling large numbers of underutilized servers. In addition, IT organizations continue to deal with the traditional cost and operational challenges of matching server resources to organizational needs that seem fickle and ever changing.

Virtual machines can significantly mitigate many of these challenges by enabling multiple application and operating system environments to be hosted on a single physical server while maintaining complete isolation between the guest operating systems and their respective applications. Hence, server virtualization facilitates server consolidation by enabling organizations to exchange a number of underutilized servers for a single highly utilized server running multiple virtual machines.

By consolidating multiple physical servers, organizations can gain several benefits:
+ Underutilized servers can be retired or redeployed.
+ Rack space can be reclaimed.
+ Power and cooling loads can be reduced.
+ New virtual servers can be rapidly deployed.
+ CapEx (higher utilization means fewer servers need to be purchased) and OpEx (few servers means a simpler environment and lower maintenance costs) can be reduced.

Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/data-center-virtualization/net_implementation_white_paper0900aecd806a9c05.html

Question 6

Explanation

A virtual machine (VM) is a software emulation of a physical server with an operating system. From an application’s point of view, the VM provides the look
and feel of a real physical server, including all its components, such as CPU, memory, and network interface cards (NICs).

The virtualization software that creates VMs and performs the hardware abstraction that allows multiple VMs to run concurrently is known as a hypervisor.

There are two types of hypervisors: type 1 and type 2 hypervisor.

In type 1 hypervisor (or native hypervisor), the hypervisor is installed directly on the physical server. Then instances of an operating system (OS) are installed on the hypervisor. Type 1 hypervisor has direct access to the hardware resources. Therefore they are more efficient than hosted architectures. Some examples of type 1 hypervisor are VMware vSphere/ESXi, Oracle VM Server, KVM and Microsoft Hyper-V.

In contrast to type 1 hypervisor, a type 2 hypervisor (or hosted hypervisor) runs on top of an operating system and not the physical hardware directly. A big advantage of Type 2 hypervisors is that management console software is not required. Examples of type 2 hypervisor are VMware Workstation (which can run on Windows, Mac and Linux) or Microsoft Virtual PC (only runs on Windows).

Type1_Type2_Hypervisors.jpg

Question 7

Question 8

Explanation

An Egress Tunnel Router (ETR) connects a site to the LISP-capable part of a core network (such as the Internet), publishes EID-to-RLOC mappings for the site, responds to Map-Request messages, and decapsulates and delivers LISP-encapsulated user data to end systems at the site.

Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/iproute_lisp/configuration/xe-3s/irl-xe-3s-book/irl-overview.html

Question 9

Explanation

Proxy ingress tunnel router (PITR): A PITR is an infrastructure LISP network entity that receives packets from non-LISP sites and encapsulates the packets to LISP sites or natively forwards them to non-LISP sites.

Reference: https://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=2992605

Question 10

Explanation

802.1Q VLAN identifier space is only 12 bits. The VXLAN identifier space is 24 bits. This doubling in size allows the VXLAN ID space to support 16 million Layer 2 segments -> Answer B is not correct.

VXLAN is a MAC-in-UDP encapsulation method that is used in order to extend a Layer 2 or Layer 3 overlay network over a Layer 3 infrastructure that already exists.

Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/lan-switching/vlan/212682-virtual-extensible-lan-and-ethernet-virt.html

Question 11

Explanation

Locator ID Separation Protocol (LISP) is a network architecture and protocol that implements the use of two namespaces instead of a single IP address:
+ Endpoint identifiers (EIDs)—assigned to end hosts.
+ Routing locators (RLOCs)—assigned to devices (primarily routers) that make up the global routing system.

Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/iproute_lisp/configuration/xe-3s/irl-xe-3s-book/irl-overview.html

Comments
  1. Anonymous
    March 17th, 2020

    Are this questions in the current exam?

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