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DHCP & DHCPv6 Questions

July 22nd, 2017 in ROUTE 300-101 Go to comments

Question 1

Explanation

DHCP options 3, 66, and 150 are used to configure Cisco IP Phones. Cisco IP Phones download their configuration from a TFTP server. When a Cisco IP Phone starts, if it does not have both the IP address and TFTP server IP address preconfigured, it sends a request with option 150 or 66 to the DHCP server to obtain this information.
+ DHCP option 150 provides the IP addresses of a list of TFTP servers.
+ DHCP option 66 gives the IP address or the hostname of a single TFTP server.

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/security/asa/asa84/configuration/guide/asa_84_cli_config/basic_dhcp.pdf

Question 2

Explanation

Most vendor’s routers/switches have the ability to function as:
+ A DHCP client and obtain an interface IPv4 address from an upstream DHCP service
+ A DHCP relay and forward UDP DHCP messages from clients on a LAN to and from a DHCP server
+ A DHCP server whereby the router/switch services DHCP requests directly

Question 3

Explanation

Extended Unique Identifier (EUI) allows a host to assign itself a unique 64-Bit IPv6 interface identifier (EUI-64). This feature is a key benefit over IPv4 as it eliminates the need of manual configuration or DHCP as in the world of IPv4. The IPv6 EUI-64 format address is obtained through the 48-bit MAC address. The MAC address is first separated into two 24-bits, with one being OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier) and the other being NIC specific. The 16-bit 0xFFFE is then inserted between these two 24-bits for the 64-bit EUI address. IEEE has chosen FFFE as a reserved value which can only appear in EUI-64 generated from the an EUI-48 MAC address.

Question 4

Question 5

Explanation

A DHCPv6 configuration information pool is a named entity that includes information about available configuration parameters and policies that control assignment of the parameters to clients from the pool. A pool is configured independently of the DHCPv6 service and is associated with the DHCPv6 service through the command-line interface (CLI).
Each configuration pool can contain the following configuration parameters and operational information:
Prefix delegation information, which could include:
+ A prefix pool name and associated preferred and valid lifetimes
+ A list of available prefixes for a particular client and associated preferred and valid lifetimes
– A list of IPv6 addresses of DNS servers
– A domain search list, which is a string containing domain names for DNS resolution

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/ipv6/configuration/15-2mt/ipv6-15-2mt-book/ip6-dhcp.html

This is how to configure a DHCPv6 pool:

ipv6 unciast-routing
ipv6 dhcp pool <pool name>
address prefix <specify address prefix> lifetime <infinite> <infinite>
dns-server <specify the dns server address>
domain-name <specify the domain name>

For example:

ipv6 dhcp pool test
address prefix 2010:AA01:10::/64 lifetime infinite infinite
dns-server AAAA:BBBB:10FE:100::15
dns-server 2010:AA01::15
domain-name example.com

Reference: https://supportforums.cisco.com/document/116221/part-1-implementing-dhcpv6-stateful-dhcpv6

So we can see DHCPv6 pool supports address prefix and domain search list, DNS servers.

Question 6

Explanation

Note: A DHCPv6 relay agent is used to relay (forward) messages between the DHCPv6 client and server.

Servers and relay agents listen for DHCP messages on UDP port 547 so if a DHCPv6 relay agent cannot receive DHCP messages (because of port 547 is blocked) then the routers (clients) will not obtain DHCPv6 prefixes.

We are not sure about answer D but maybe it is related to the (absence of) “Reload Persistent Interface ID” in DHCPv6 Relay Options. This feature makes the interface ID option persistent. The interface ID is used by relay agents to decide which interface should be used to forward a RELAY-REPLY packet. A persistent interface-ID option will not change if the router acting as a relay agent goes offline during a reload or a power outage. When the router acting as a relay agent returns online, it is possible that changes to the internal interface index of the relay agent may have occurred in certain scenarios (such as, when the relay agent reboots and the number of interfaces in the interface index changes, or when the relay agents boot up and has more virtual interfaces than it did before the reboot). This feature prevents such scenarios from causing any problems.

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/ipaddr_dhcp/configuration/15-e/dhcp-15-e-book/dhcp-15e-book_chapter_010.html

Question 7

Explanation

In this topology DSW1 is the DHCPv6 Relay agent so it should relay (forward) the DHCPv6 Request packets (from the clients) out of its Gi1/2 interface to the DHCPv6 server. The command “ipv6 dhcp relay destination …” is used to complete this task.

Note: There is no “default-router” command for DHCPv6. The “ipv6 dhcp relay destination” is not required to configure on every router along the path between the client and server. It is ONLY required on the router functioning as the DHCPv6 relay agent.

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/ios-nx-os-software/enterprise-ipv6-solution/whitepaper_c11-689821.html

Question 8

Question 9

Explanation

If the DHCP Server is not on the same subnet with the DHCP Client, we need to configure the router on the DHCP client side to act as a DHCP Relay Agent so that it can forward DHCP messages between the DHCP Client & DHCP Server. To make a router a DHCP Relay Agent, simply put the “ip helper-address <IP-address-of-DHCP-Server>” command under the interface that receives the DHCP messages from the DHCP Client.

Question 10

Comments
  1. Guacca
    August 13th, 2017

    Q7.

    Why would clients on ALS2 already be receiving v6 addresses before putting in the relay destination command?

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